Modalert (Modafinil) is a memory-improving and mood-brightening psychostimulant. It is thought to work by affecting certain brain chemicals that control the sleep/wake cycle and is proven to enhance wakefulness, attention capacity and vigilance.
Increasing numbers of students use Modalert. The benefits of Modafinil use as one of the study drugs or neuroenhancers are substantial and proven. It's consumption at several leading American and British universities is quite common among students seeking a competitive edge in exams, where drug-testing is not yet routine.
There are a number of significant differences between Modafinil and traditional cognitive enhancers such as Ritalin and Adderall. Subjectively, it feels a lot smoother and cleaner. It is also much less likely to cause feelings of anxiety, jitteriness or excessive locomotor activity. The instance of hypersomnolent 'rebound effect' is also much lower.
Modafinil is often used to help people stay awake during work for people with work schedules that interfere with a normal sleep routine (shift work sleep disorder). It is also used in the treatment of sleep disorders such as narcolepsy & sleep apnea.
The US military are interested in Modafinil too. It was reportedly used by Allied combat soldiers in both Gulf Wars and Iraq. It was also used by Astronauts on the International Space Station.
Experimentally, Modafinil is used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease; depression; attention-deficit disorder (ADHD); myotonic dystrophy; chronic fatigue; amnesia and jet-lag.
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The recommended dose of Modafinil or Modalert is 200 mg given once a day.
Doses up to 400 mg/day, given as a single dose, have been well tolerated, but there is no consistent evidence that a higher dose delivers additional benefit beyond that of the 200 mg dose. Modafinil is non-addictive and the elimination half-life is 12 - 15 hours.
Take Modafinil by mouth with or without food, usually once daily in the morning or the afternoon. If you are using Modafinil for shift work sleep disorder, take it 1 hour before you start your work shift .
The most commonly observed adverse events (less than 5%) associated with the use of Modafinil were headache, nausea, nervousness, rhinitis, diarrhea, back pain, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, and dyspepsia.
Consult a doctor immediately if any of these rare but serious side effects occur: mental/mood changes (e.g., agitation, confusion, depression, abnormal thoughts, hallucinations).
Seek immediate medical attention if any of these rare but very serious side effects occur: chest pain, fast/pounding/irregular heartbeat, signs of infection (e.g., fever, persistent sore throat).
A very serious allergic reaction to this cognitive enhancing drug are rare. However, stop taking this medication and seek immediate medical attention if you notice any of the following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction: rash, itching/swelling (especially of face/tongue/throat), skin blisters/peeling, severe dizziness, trouble breathing.
Contraindications and warnings
It is important to consult with your physician before using Modafinil, particularly for those with:
- Hypersensitivity to the drug or other constituents of the tablets (wheat gluten),
- Previous cardiovascular problems, particularly while using other stimulants,
- Cardiac conditions, particularly: Left ventricular hypertrophy and Mitral valve prolapse.
Before using Modafinil, tell your doctor or pharmacist of all prescription and nonprescription/herbal products you may use, especially of medications for high blood pressure. For example beta blockers such as: Atenolol or metoprolol, guanabenz, clonidine, methyldopa, prazosin, "blood thinners" (e.g. warfarin), street drugs (e.g. methamphetamine, MDMA-"ecstasy"), medications that affect liver enzymes that remove Modafinil from the body (e.g., azole antifungals such as itraconazole/ketoconazole, rifamycins such as rifabutin/rifampin, anti-seizure medications such as carbamazepine/phenobarbital).
Modafinil can speed up or slow down the removal of other medications from your body by affecting certain liver enzymes. These affected medications may include certain antidepressants (e.g. TCAs such as clomipramine or desipramine, SSRIs such as fluoxetine, fluvoxamine), cyclosporine, diazepam, phenytoin, propranolol, theophylline, triazolam.
Avoid taking MAO inhibitors (e.g., furazolidone, isocarboxazid, linezolid, moclobemide, phenelzine, procarbazine, selegiline, tranylcypromine) within 2 weeks before, during, and after treatment with Modafinil. In some cases a serious (possibly fatal) drug interaction may occur.
Adderall is a brand-name pharmaceutical psychostimulant composed of mixed amphetamine salts, which is thought to work by increasing the amount of norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain. Adderall is widely reported to increase alertness, concentration and overall cognitive performance while decreasing user fatigue. It is available in two formulations: immediate release and extended release (XR).
Specifically, Adderall XR is composed of the following proportions of active ingredients:
- 1/4 dextroamphetamine saccharate
- 1/4 dextroamphetamine sulfate
- 1/4 (racemic dextro/levo-amphetamine) aspartate monohydrate
- 1/4 (racemic dextro/levo-amphetamine) sulfate
These four salts are metabolized at different rates and possess diverse half lives, therefore resulting in a less dramatic onset and termination of therapeutic action, as compared to single-salt amphetamine preparations.
The average elimination half-life in adults for dextroamphetamine and levoamphetamine is 10 hours and 13 hours respectively. Breakdown rates are affected by many factors including urinary and stomach pH, weight, gender, other medications being taken, and age. Alkalinity increases bioavailability and acidity causes the drug to be excreted sooner. Manufacturers claim that the mixture of salts in Adderall XR makes its effects smoother (that is, makes softer highs and lows); however, there is little support for this claim.
Urinary and stomach pH levels can have the strongest effect on DL-amphetamine excretion and absorption. Co-administration of acidic substances (e.g. citric acid) causes an accelerated excretion of DL-amphetamine while co-administration of alkaline agents (e.g. antacids) causes a marked increase in both retention and absorption of amphetamines potentially resulting in dangerously high serum amphetamine levels.
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Adderall is also reportedly one of the most widely used "study drugs" at many American universities. Adderall is reported to help focus energy and concentration to a much higher level than normal. It enables the user to focus and stay awake. Stories of students writing papers continuously for an unusually long time, or "cramming" all night for an exam with no loss of energy or concentration are common. However, the user reportedly can suffer from drastic side effects the following day if Adderall was used to avoid a normal sleep pattern. "In extreme cases, the drug can cause paranoia, hallucinations and heart attacks." William Frankenberger, psychology professor at University of Wisconsin at Eau Claire, led at a study at the university in 2004 that reported 14% of the campus had abused some form of study pills, including Adderall. College campuses known to be highly competitive or have a high rate of binge drinking had up to 25% of students who misused an ADHD medication within one year, a survey of students at 119 colleges across the country concluded.
Due to side effects including appetite suppression and weight loss, Adderall has also been used as an off-label drug for obesity.
Dosing and administration
Adderall is marketed as either an immediate-release tablet, Adderall, or an extended-release capsule, Adderall XR. Doses of immediate-release Adderall are available in 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 20, and 30 mg. Adderall XR is available in 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 mg doses.
Adderall XR utilizes the Microtrol extended-release delivery system, incorporating two types of beads. The first dissolves immediately, releasing half of the drug, while the second type dissolves much more slowly releasing the remaining drug four hours later. Maximum plasma concentration is achieved in seven hours, compared to instant-release Adderall, which reaches maximum plasma concentration within three hours. As a result of its high bioavailability, Adderall XR's effectiveness is not altered by food absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. However, mean plasma concentration is prolonged by 2.5 hours (using a 900 calorie standard high-fat meal as the control). Drugs that alter urinary pH will cause variations in amount and method of excretion and usage should be monitored when taken concurrently with Adderall.
Adderall Prolonged Use
Tolerance, extreme psychological dependence, and severe social disability can occur when amphetamines are abused. The manufacturer warns against exceeding the prescribed dosage, injecting the drug, or insufflation of the drug. Prolonged high doses of amphetamines followed by an abrupt cessation can result in extreme fatigue and mental depression. Chronic abuse of amphetamines can result in the manifestation of amphetamine psychosis.
Stop using Adderall if you experience any of these serious side effects:
- fast, pounding, or uneven heartbeats;
- feeling light-headed, fainting;
- increased blood pressure (severe headache, blurred vision, trouble concentrating, chest pain, numbness, seizure); or
- tremor, restlessness, hallucinations, unusual behavior, or motor tics (muscle twitches).
Less serious side effects may include:
- headache or dizziness;
- sleep problems (insomnia);
- dry mouth or an unpleasant taste in your mouth;
- diarrhea, constipation;
- loss of appetite, weight loss; or
- loss of interest in sex, impotence, or difficulty having an orgasm.
Contraindications, interactions, and precautions
The following provides only general guidelines and is not comprehensive. Please refer to a more comprehensive list for further information regarding co-administration of amphetamine with other substances.
SSRIs (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, e.g., Fluoxetine, Citalopram, Paroxetine, etc.) While rare, the possibility for serotonin syndrome exists with this combination. Use only when it is directed.
NRIs (norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, e.g., Atomoxetine, Strattera, etc.) NRI medications and amphetamine both enhance noradrenergic activity. Possible augmentation/potentiation of effects. Use only when directed.
SNRIs (selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors).
Bupropion (Zyban, Wellbutrin IR) Both bupropion and amphetamine have noradrengic and dopaminergic activity. Possible augmentation/potentiation of effects. Bupropion has pro-convulsant properties that may be enhanced or cumulatively potentiated by amphetamine. Use only when directed.
MAOIs (monoamine oxidase inhibitors, e.g., Phenelzine, Nardil, Selegiline, Emsam, Iproniazid, Iprozid, etc.) Do not administer amphetamines for a minimum of two weeks after last use of MAOI type drugs. Possible hypertensive crises, dangerously elevated amphetamine levels. Preliminary trials of low dose amphetamine and MAOIs being administered together are in progress. However, this is to only be done under strict supervision of the prescribing parties.
Tricyclics and related compounds (tricyclic antidepressants, e.g., Imipramine, Tofranil, Janamine; as well as related compounds including Cyclobenzaprine). Possible potentiation of 5ht (serotonin), dopamine and norepinephrine related drug effects. The combination of tricyclic and amphetamine compounds / other direct acting sympathomimetics has been associated with increased sympathetic action. Adjustments to dose may be required. Concurrent use not generally recommended due to interaction between direct acting sympathomimetics such as amphetamines and tricyclics. Indirect acting sympathomimetics may have decreased efficacy when combined with tricyclics (tricyclic blockade may inhibit the action of some indirect acting sympathomimetics).
CYP2D6 (liver enzyme) inhibitors, e.g., most SSRIs such as escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, etc. Some anti-psychotics such as thioridazine, haloperidol, and, levomepromazine. The stimulant cocaine. Methadone, a opioid analgesic and anti-addictive. There are additional compounds that inhibit CYP2D6, it is important to find out if any medication or drug that is being taken is a CYP2D6 inhibitor. Taking a CYP2D6 inhibiting drug along with Adderall (study pills in general) will lead to a elevated level of Adderall in the system and it will also remain longer in the body, this can lead to undesired or possibly serious side effects.
Piracetam is a nootropic agent, meaning it improves mental functions such as intelligence, cognition, memory, motivation, attention, and concentration.
It has very low toxicity and has no stimulating, sedative, addictive or neurovegitative effects.
Exactly how piracetam and other similar study drugs work is not fully understood. However, it is known that piracetam has an effect on metabolism and improves oxygen transportation, which enhances cognition.
One of the more intriguing effects of piracetam is it's ability to promote the flow of information between the right and left parts of the brain. It's know that communication between the two sides of the brain is associated with flashes of creativity.
This could also be the basis for piracetam's usefulness in the treatment of the reading disorder, dyslexia.
The effect of piracetam can be further increased if it's taken with DMAE or choline. When piracetam and choline are combined, there is a synergistic effect which causes a greater improvement in memory than the sum of each when taken separately.
A small amount of users report feeling slightly agitated and mildly depressed when taking piracetam for more than a week without a choline supplement. These feelings can be alleviated quickly with a single dose of choline. It's possible that piracetam causes acetyl-choline to be used up more quickly than usual so supplementing with choline may help to replenish this important neurotransmitter.
Dosage: 800mg - 1200mg three times daily to start off with. This initial dosage should be carried on for 1 - 2 months before the dosage is gradually reduced to 400mg - 600mg three times a day.
Piracetam takes effect within 30 to 60 minutes and the elimination half life is 6 hours.
Not recommended for pregnant or nursing women.
Users suffering from renal disorders should take piracetam with caution & in lowered dosages.
No drug interactions with commonly consumed pharmaceutical products have been found to date and piracetam does not interfere with the users ability to drive or operate machinery.
There has been no reported cases of piracetam overdose to date.
On rare occasions and usually from taking too high a dose, users of piracetam may experience minor side effects such as upset stomach, gas, headache or insomnia. Lowering the dose is usually effective in offsetting any side effects.
Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the most commonly prescribed psychostimulant and is indicated in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and narcolepsy, although off-label uses include treating lethargy, depression, neural insult and obesity. It is most commonly known as the brand name Ritalin which is an instant-release racemic mixture, although a variety of brand names, and formulations exist. Methylphenidate is a mild central nervous system stimulant thought to exert its effect by enhancing dopaminergic transmission in the brain.
Ritalin is the most commonly prescribed psychostimulant and works by increasing the activity of the central nervous system. It produces such effects as increasing or maintaining alertness, combating fatigue, and improving attention.
Narcolepsy, a chronic sleep disorder characterized by overwhelming daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep, is treated primarily with stimulants. Ritalin is effective in increasing wakefulness, vigilance, and performance.
The most common side effects of taking methylphenidate study pills are nervousness and insomnia. Other reactions include hypersensitivity (including skin rash, urticaria, fever, arthralgia, exfoliative dermatitis, erythema multiforme with histopathological findings of necrotizing vasculitis, and thrombocytopenic purpura); anorexia; nausea; dizziness; palpitations; headache; dyskinesia; drowsiness; blood pressure and pulse changes, both up and down; tachycardia; angina; cardiac arrhythmia; abdominal pain; and weight loss during prolonged therapy. Very rare effects include reports of Tourette's syndrome, toxic psychosis, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
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Important information about Ritalin
Use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. Ritalin may cause dizziness, blurred vision, or restlessness, and it may hide the symptoms of extreme tiredness. If you experience these effects, avoid hazardous activities.
Ritalin is habit forming. You can become physically and psychologically dependent on these study pills, and withdrawal effects may occur if you stop taking it suddenly after several weeks of continuous use. Talk to your doctor about stopping this medication gradually. Do not crush, chew, or open any "once-daily" Ritalin tablets or capsules. Swallow them whole.
Who should not take Ritalin?
You cannot take Ritalin if you:
- have heart disease or high blood pressure;
- have arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries);
- have glaucoma;
- have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), or phenelzine (Nardil) in the last 14 days; or
- have a history of drug or alcohol abuse.
Before taking this drug, tell your doctor if you have:
- problems with your thyroid,
- an anxiety disorder,
- epilepsy or another seizure disorder, or
You may not be able to take Ritalin, or you may require a lower dose or special monitoring during treatment if you have any of the conditions listed above.
It is not known whether Ritalin will harm an unborn baby. Do not take Ritalin without first talking to your doctor if you are pregnant. It is also not known whether Ritalin passes into breast milk. Do not take Ritalin without first talking to your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.
How should Ritalin be taken?
Take Ritalin exactly as directed by your doctor. If you do not understand these directions, ask your pharmacist, nurse, or doctor to explain them to you.
Take each dose with a full glass of water. Phendimetrazine is either taken once a day (sustained release formula) or two to three times daily (immediate-release formula) before meals on an empty stomach.
Do not take Ritalin in the evening because it may cause insomnia.
Do not crush, chew, or open any "once-daily" phendimetrazine tablets or capsules. Swallow them whole. Never take more of this medication than is prescribed for you. Too much Ritalin could be very dangerous to your health. Store Ritalin at room temperature away from moisture and heat.
What happens if a dose is missed?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for your next dose or if it is already evening, skip the missed dose and take only your next regularly scheduled dose. A dose taken too late in the day will cause insomnia. Do not take a double dose of this drug.
What happens if someone overdoses on Ritalin?
Seek emergency medical attention.
Symptoms of a Ritalin overdose include restlessness, tremor, rapid breathing, confusion, hallucinations, panic, aggressiveness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, an irregular heartbeat, and seizures.
What should be avoided while taking Ritalin?
Use caution when driving, operating machinery, or performing other hazardous activities. Ritalin may cause dizziness, blurred vision, or restlessness, and it may hide the symptoms of extreme tiredness. If you experience these effects, avoid hazardous activities.
Do not take Ritalin late in the day. A dose taken too late in the day can cause insomnia.
Ritalin side effects
If you experience any of the following serious side effects, stop taking Ritalin and seek emergency medical attention:
- an allergic reaction (difficulty breathing; closing of your throat; swelling of your lips, tongue, or face; or hives);
- an irregular heartbeat or very high blood pressure (severe headache, blurred vision); or
- hallucinations, abnormal behavior, or confusion.
Other, less serious side effects may be more likely to occur. Continue to take Ritalin and talk to your doctor if you experience:
- restlessness or tremor,
- nervousness or anxiety,
- headache or dizziness,
- dry mouth or an unpleasant taste in your mouth,
- diarrhea or constipation, or
- impotence or changes in your sex drive.
Ritalin is habit forming. You can become physically and psychologically dependent on this medication, and withdrawal effects may occur if you stop taking it suddenly after several weeks of continuous use. Talk to your doctor about stopping your use gradually.
What other drugs will affect Ritalin?
You cannot take Ritalin if you have taken a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid (Marplan), tranylcypromine (Parnate), or phenelzine (Nardil) in the last 14 days.
Changes in insulin and other diabetes drug therapies may be necessary during treatment with Ritalin.
Methylphenidate should not be prescribed concomitantly with tricyclic antidepressants, such as desipramine, or monoamine oxidase inhibitors, such as phenelzine or tranylcypromine, as methylphenidate may dangerously increase plasma concentrations, leading to potential toxic reactions (mainly, cardiovascular effects). Methylphenidate should not be prescribed to patients who suffer from severe arrhythmia, hypertension or liver damage. It shouldn't be prescribed to patients who demonstrate drug-seeking behaviour, pronounced agitation or nervousness.
Dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine) is a psychostimulant which is known to produce increased wakefulness and focus in association with decreased fatigue and appetite. It is perhaps the archetypal psycho-stimulant. Study pills with similar psychoactive properties are often referred to or described as "amphetamine analogues", "amphetamine-like", or having "amphetaminergic" effects. Enantiomerically pure dextroamphetamine is more powerful than racemic amphetamine and has stimulant properties that are similar to those of methamphetamine, but is slightly less potent.
Prescribed for weight loss, depression, fatigue, concentration problems and for nightshift workers and as a study aid.
Though such use remains out of the mainstream, dextroamphetamine has been successfully applied in the treatment of certain categories of depression as well as other psychiatric syndromes. Such alternate uses include reduction of fatigue in cancer patients, antidepressant treatment for HIV patients with depression and debilitating fatigue, and early stage physiotherapy for severe stroke victims. If physical therapy patients take dextroamphetamine while they practice their movements for rehabilitation, they learn to move much faster than without dextroamphetamine, and in practice sessions with shorter lengths.
The U.S. Air Force uses Dexedrine as one of its two "go pills," given to pilots on long missions to help them remain focused and alert. (Conversely, the Air Force also issues "no-go pills"; prescription sedatives used after the mission to calm down. The Tarnak Farm incident was linked by media reports to the use of these study pills on long term fatigued pilots. A military tribunal did not accept this explanation, citing the lack of similar incidents. Newer stimulant medications with fewer side effects, like Modalert are being investigated and sometimes issued for this reason.
Along with Adderall and Ritalin, non-prescription use of dextroamphetamine has been reported for the feeling of elation (euphoria) and for use as a study aid, social aid and party drug. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, a large percentage of American college students reported illicit stimulant use in 2004.
Priscilla Presley used it after Elvis gave it to her to stay awake during class.
The English pop group Dexys Midnight Runners were named after Dexedrine, which was popularly used as a recreational drug among Northern Soul fans at the time.
Johnny Cash is known for having abused dextroamphetamine for the majority of his career. Cash frequently mentions this abuse in his 1997 autobiography.
Waylon Jennings is known to have used Dexedrine during his early career, before switching to cocaine. He describes its use and his addiction in depth in his 1996 autobiography.
In the Beatles Anthology documentary, Paul McCartney says that The Beatles used it during their early days to endure hours of playing at clubs in Hamburg, Germany.
Hugh Hefner has spoken openly about his usage.
Dextroamphetamine treatment along with MAO inhibitors is strongly contraindicated. Treatment should also be avoided in patients suffering from physical health conditions including cardiovascular diseases, hypertensive disease, hyperthyroidism, glaucoma and anorexia.
Treating patients with a substantial history of drug abuse is strongly inadvisable. However, it has been reported that people with undiagnosed adult ADD may actually abstain from further drug abuse, as they may have been self-medicating in order to control their undiagnosed ADD.
Caution should be taken when treating chronically depressed or bipolar patients for an irrelevant condition, as in depressed patients the initial psychological state of pride and optimism with an absence of depression may provoke abuse, while bipolar patients could go into a manic state.
Dexedrine use, either for recreational or medical use, can induce many different effects as shown below. In general any negative effects are increased with an increasing dosage amount. If used at standard medical dosages, there are relativly few serious associated adverse effects. (Unless dextroamphetamine is contraindicated with another drug one is taking.)
Physical effects of dextroamphetamine can include a reduced appetite, anorexia, hyperactivity, dilated pupils, flushing, restlessness, dry mouth, headache, tachycardia, bradycardia, tachypnea, hypertension, fever, diaphoresis, diarrhea, constipation, blurred vision, aphasia, dizziness, twitches, insomnia, numbness, palpitations, arrhythmias and tremors. In high doses or chronic use convulsions, dry or itchy skin, acne, pallor can occur. With high chronic dosages, a myocardial infarction (heart attack) can occur.
Psychological effects of dextroamphetamine can include anxiety (by increased norepinephrine), euphoria (by increased dopamine), altered libido, increased awareness, alertness, concentration, energy, excitability, sociability, irritability, aggression, psychomotor agitation, self-confidence, feeling of power or superiority, repetitive behaviors, paranoia and typically in high doses and/or chronic use, amphetamine psychosis. A serene calming sensation (in association with bradycardia) can also be induced by dextroamphetamine.
Withdrawal symptoms from Dexedrine primarily consist of mental fatigue, mental depression and an increased appetite. Symptoms may last for days with occasional abuse and weeks or months with chronic abuse or chronic medicinal use with severity dependant on the length of time and the size of doses taken. Withdrawal symptoms may also include anxiety, agitation, excessive sleep, vivid or lucid dreams (deep REM sleep), suicidal thoughts and psychosis.
Waklert is a brand name alternative to Nuvigil, manufactured by Sun Pharma based in Mumbai, India, that contains the active ingredient Armodafinil.
It's one of the most commonly used and safest psycho-stimulants which promotes wakefulness, improves mood of users and enhances cognitive ability by altering the action of certain natural chemicals (neurotransmitters) within the brain. Armodafinil is a precursor to Modafinil meaning that the body converts it into Modafinil but because of this, it takes longer for it to take effect.
What conditions are treated using this medication?
Waklert is medically approved and traditionally used for treating excessive daytime sleepiness caused by sleep apnea, shift work sleep disorder and narcolepsy.
It is also regularly used off label to treat a wide range of conditions including jet lag, "atypical" depression, neurological fatigue, weight loss, Parkinson's disease and ADHD.
University students routinely use it for it's cognitive enhancement effects and militaries from several countries around the world including the US military use it
as an alternative to amphetamines. In 2009, the Canadian Medical Association Journal reported that Armodafinil is used by ISS (International Space Station) crew members due to it's vigilance enhancing effects allowing them to optimize their performance, regardless of how fatigued they feel.
In the last four years alone, sales of Armodafinil have increased by 74% due to a number of factors including many senior executives such as Silicon Valley investor, Dave Asprey, going public about their daily use which they claim allows them to perform better with elevated mental clarity, focus, concentration and drive. A quick search of his name in YouTube will reveal countless
videos of this colloquially named "bullet proof executive" plus many other people in professional capacities discussing their personal use of these study pills with the likes of CNN and ABC news.
Recommended dosage of Waklert:
The recommended dose of Waklert is 150 mg taken once a day in the morning or early afternoon with a glass of water except in the case of shift work sleep disorder where it should be taken
approximately one hour before work.
Doses of up to 300 mg a day in a single dose or split into two doses of 150 mg have been well tolerated and whereas some people benefit from the increased dosage, others
have reported no additional benefit beyond that of a single dose.
Waklert is non addictive and the potential to suffer severe or even moderate adverse reactions is extremely low. Clinical trials involving
high doses for extended periods indicate no long terms damage occurs and there are no recorded cases of overdose.
Are there any side effects associated with taking this drug?
Most people suffer no side effects from using Waklert but about 5% of users reported mild side effects including headache, nervousness, rhinitis, nausea, anxiety, insomnia, dizziness, back pain, stomach upset or diarrhea.
Rare side effects include mental or mood changes (confusion, agitation, depression, hallucinations and abnormal thoughts), chest pain, fast/irregular/pounding heartbeat, signs of an infection (fever, persistent sore throat) and users should seek medical attention in any of these cases.
A severe allergic reaction to the active ingredient is extremely rare but stop using it and seek immediate medical attention if after using Armodafinil, you notice a skin rash developing, blister/peeling skin, trouble breathing, severe dizziness, itching or swelling of the face, throat or tongue.
Contraindications and warnings:
If you plan on using Waklert, it is important to consult with a doctor beforehand if you have had any previous cardiovascular problems particularly when
using other pharmaceutical stimulants. Individuals with a history of cardiac condition such as left ventricular hypertrophy and mitral valve prolapse
should also consult a doctor before taking Armodafinil.
Before using generic Nuvigil, consult with your doctor or a pharmacist regarding any prescription or non-prescription/herbal products you are using, especially medications for high blood pressure and/or "beta blockers" (e.g. metoprolol, atenolol, guanabenz, methyldopa, clonidine, prazosin) "blood thinners" (e.g. warfarin), stimulants or alternative study drugs (e.g. ritalin, adderall, dexedrine), "medications that affect liver enzymes" (e.g. rifamycins such as rifabutin/rifampin, antifungals such as itraconazole/ketoconazole, anti-seizure medications such as carbamazepine/phenobarbital).
The active ingredient, Armodafinil, may speed up or slow down the removal of other prescription medications from the body by affecting certain liver enzymes. The affected drugs include cyclosporine, propranolol, phenytoin, diazepam, theophylline, triazolam and certain antidepressants (e.g. clomipramine, desipramine, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine).
Avoid taking MAO inhibitors (furazolidone, moclobemide, linezolid, isocarboxazid, phenelzine, tranylcypromine, selegiline, procarbazine) in the 2 weeks before, during, and after treatment.
Please note this is only a brief summary of the warnings and contraindications associated with the use of Armodafinil and potential users should seek more details either from a qualified physician.
Ephedrine HCL is the synthetic equavilant to natural Ephedra found in plants such as Sida Cordifolia and is used as a stimulant, appetite suppressant, fat burner, concentration aid, decongestant, and to treat hypotension associated with anaesthesia.
Guide to taking Ephedrine
Ephedrine should only be taken by individuals who are healthy and do not have any serious health conditions. Before beginning to take this, always read the warnings on the label to acquaint yourself with the possible complications that could result. If you develop any symptoms then it is smart to either decrease your dosage or stop taking it altogether. It is important to note that the negative claims regarding Ephedrine have been greatly blown out of proportion.
If you are new to Ephedrine, you should start with the smallest dosage possible which for most individuals is 8 to12 mg. Start by taking it once a day or split it up into two portions.
The stimulant properties of Ephedrine are incredible but you must figure out how much your system can handle at first. A full dose of ephedrine is 24 mg and that is too high to start with. Starting with a low dose of Ephedrine allows your body time to gradually get used to it.
As time goes by you can increase the dosage but do not go overboard and think that if a little is good then a lot would be even better. It is wise to consume no more than 72 mg on a daily basis that are broken up into three equal servings.
Ephedrine can make a person feel restless. If this is the case, simple go for a quick walk or jog to work off the nervous energy. Alternatively, reduce the amount you are taking.
If you take it too late in the day it can affect your sleep patterns so in the beginning it is not recommended that you take it any time after 2pm.
Your body will become accustomed to Ephedrine rather swiftly so in order to make it as effective as possible for yourself, keep taking it for no more than 6 weeks at a time. Then take 2 to 4 weeks off and go back to it after that time. On a weekly basis, take it 5 days and then give your body a rest for two. It is worth noting that some manufacturers of Ephedrine advise their customers to take the product for as long as 12 weeks before breaking. For first timers this is most likely too long a period.
Possible side effects of Ephedrine:
Most common side effects (if used incorrectly) include:
Headache, sweating, sleeplessness
Less common side effects include:
Dizziness; nausea; nervousness; restlessness; stomach irritation.
Rare side effects include:
Severe allergic reactions (rash; hives; difficulty breathing; tightness in the chest; swelling of the mouth, face, lips, or tongue); difficulty urinating, heat stroke, heart attack, hypertension, stroke.
Do NOT use Ephedrine study pills if:
- you are taking furazolidone or have taken a monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor (eg, phenelzine) in the last 14 days
- you have severe high blood pressure, severe heart blood vessel disease, a rapid heartbeat, or severe heart problems
- if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding
- if you have a history of heart problems, diabetes, glaucoma, an enlarged prostate or other prostate problems, adrenal gland problems, high blood pressure, seizures, stroke, blood vessel problems, an overactive thyroid, or severe asthma
Be cautious about taking Ephedrine if you are using any of the following medicines:
- Rauwolfia derivatives (eg, reserpine) because the effectiveness of Ephedrine may be decreased
- Beta-blockers (eg, propranolol), cocaine, furazolidone, indomethacin, methyldopa, MAO inhibitors (eg, phenelzine), oxytocic medicines (eg, oxytocin), rauwolfia derivatives (eg, reserpine), or tricyclic antidepressants (eg, amitriptyline) because the actions and side effects of Ephedrine may be increased
- Bromocriptine, catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors (eg, entacapone), digoxin, or droxidopa because the actions and side effects of these medicines may be increased
- Guanadrel, guanethidine, mecamylamine, methyldopa, or reserpine because its effectiveness may be decreased by Ephedrine